Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), or “flakka” by its street name, is a synthetic stimulant used recreationally. A-PVP is related to other cathinone derivates often commonly referred to as “bath salts,” and the mechanism of action resembles that of cocaine and amphetamine by inhibiting dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake . Unlike older drugs, the adverse effects of newer designer drugs are not as well known .
What is A-PVP
A-PVP, like other psychostimulants, can cause hyperstimulation, paranoia, and hallucinations. α-PVP has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs. α-PVP has also been linked to at least one death with pulmonary edema and moderately advanced atherosclerotic coronary disease when it was combined with pentedrone.
How to use Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone
A-PVP is sometimes the active ingredient in recreational drugs sold as “bath salts“. It may also be distinguished from “bath salts” and sold under a different name: “flakka“, a name used in Florida, or “gravel” in other parts of the U.S. It is reportedly available as cheaply as US$5 per dose. A laboratory for one county in Florida reported a steady rise in α-PVP detections in seized drugs from none in January–February 2014 to 84 in September 2014.
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A-PVP acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor with IC50 values of 14.2 and 12.8 nM, respectively, similar to its methylenedioxy derivative MDPV. Similar to other cathinones, α-PVP has been shown to have reinforcing effects in rats. α-PVP gives no reaction with the Marquis reagent. It gives a grey/black reaction with the Mecke reagent.
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A-PVP may be quantified in blood, plasma or urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to provide evidence in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma α-PVP concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10–50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >100 μg/L in intoxicated patients and >300 μg/L in victims of acute overdosage.
Effects of alpha-PVP
Other names: CAS 14530-33-7, alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, alpha-PVP, Alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone, Desmethyl pyrovalerone, Flakka, beta-Ketone-prolintane, Prolintanone, Gravel, beta-Keto-prolintane, a-PVP, a-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone, O-2387, alpha-PHP, alpha-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone, CAS 13415-86-6, alpha-pyrrolidinohexanophenone, PV-7
What is Synthetic Stimulant