Pseudoephedrine is a member of the class of the class of phenylethanolamines that is (1S)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylethan-1-ol in which the pro-S hydrogen at position 2 is replaced by a methyl group. It has a role as a sympathomimetic agent, an anti-asthmatic drug, a bronchodilator agent, a vasoconstrictor agent, a central nervous system drug, a nasal decongestant, a xenobiotic and a plant metabolite. It is a secondary alcohol, a secondary amino compound and a member of phenylethanolamines. It is a conjugate base of a pseudoephedrine(1+).
What is Pseudoephedrine
Pseudoephedrine is a stimulant, but it is well known for shrinking swollen nasal mucous membranes, so it is often used as a decongestant. It reduces tissue hyperemia, edema, and nasal congestion commonly associated with colds or allergies. Other beneficial effects may include increasing the drainage of sinus secretions, and opening of obstructed Eustachian tubes. The same vasoconstriction action can also result in hypertension, which is a noted side effect of Isoephedrine.
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Pseudoephedrine is structurally related to ephedrine but exerts a weaker effect on the sympathetic nervous system.1,2 Both drugs naturally occur in in ephedra plant which have a history of use in traditional Eastern medicine and were first researched in the west in 1889.2 The decongestant effect of pseudoephedrine was described in dogs in 1927. Isoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine. Its principal mechanism of action relies on its direct action on the adrenergic receptor system. The vasoconstriction that Isoephedrine produces is believed to be principally an α-adrenergic receptor response.
Effects of Pseudoephedrine
Pseudoephedrine is a phenethylamine and a diastereomer of ephedrine with sympathomimetic property. Isoephedrine displaces norepinephrine from storage vesicles in presynaptic neurones, thereby releasing norepinephrine into the neuronal synapses where it stimulates primarily alpha-adrenergic receptors. It also has weak direct agonist activity at alpha- and beta- adrenergic receptors. Receptor stimulation results in vasoconstriction and decreases nasal and sinus congestion.
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Pseudoephedrine acts on α- and β2-adrenergic receptors, to cause vasoconstriction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the bronchi, respectively. α-Adrenergic receptors are located on the muscles lining the walls of blood vessels. When these receptors are activated, the muscles contract, causing the blood vessels to constrict (vasoconstriction).
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Other names: (+)-Pseudoephedrine, d-Pseudoephedrine, Isoephedrine, Sudafed, trans-Ephedrine, d-Isoephedrine, Psi-ephedrin, Psi-ephedrine, Pseudoefedrina, Pseudoephedrinum, CAS 90-82-4, Besan, Afrinol, Sinutab, d-Isoephedrine, Pseudoéphédrine
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